### Questions - Geometry

**1)** **What is Geometry ?**

This is all about shapes and their properties.

**2)** What does intersect mean ?

Intersect means meet.

**3)** What are intersecting lines ?

They are two lines that meet at one point.

Two intersecting lines always form a plane.

**4)** What are parallel lines ?

They are two lines that are always the same distance apart, they never meet.

They do not have to be straight lines (eg railway tracks).

**5)** What are perpendicular lines ?

Two lines that are at right angles to one another.

We say one line is perpendicular to the other.

**6)** What is an angle ?

An angle is the space between two intersecting lines.

An angle tells us how far something turns or rotates.

**7)** What is a Right Angle ?

A right angle is an internal angle which is equal to 90 degrees.

**8)** How do we measure angles ?

Angles can be measured using a protractor.

The size of an angle is measured in degrees.

**9)** How many different types of angles are there ?**Acute** - Less than a right angle less than 90**Right Angled** - 90 degrees**Obtuse** - Greater than 90 degrees (right angle) but less than 180 degrees**Straight** - 180 degrees**Reflex** - Greater than 180 degrees

**10)** What is the difference between an **interior** and an **exterior angle** ?

An interior angle is an angle inside the shape.

An exterior angle is an angle outside the shape.

The sum of the three interior angles of a triangle always add up to 180 degrees.

**11)** What is the 3 Letter Angle Notation ?

We can name angles using three capital letters <ABC

The middle letter is called the vertex of the angle.

**12)** What are the 6 rules of Geometry ?

Angles in a triangle add up to 180 degrees

Angles on a straight line add up to 180 degrees

Angles in a quadralateral add up to 360 degrees

Angles around a point add up to 360 degrees

Exterior angles of a triangle equals the sum of the opposite interior angles

Isosceles triangles have 2 sides and 2 angles equal

**13)** Can you describe the Perimeter of a shape ?

The total length of all the sides.

It is measured in mm, cm, m or km.

**14)** **What is the definition of a Polygon ?**

Any 2D flat shape that is made up of straight lines called sides.

A circle is not a polygon.

**15)** Can you give some examples of some polygons ?**Triangle** - 3 sides**Quadralateral** - 4 sides**Pentagon** - 5 sides**Hexagon** - 6 sides**Heptagon** - 7 sides**Octagon** - 8 sides**Nonagon** - 9 sides**Decagon** - 10 sides

**16)** What is a Regular Polygon ?

A polygon is called regular when all the sides are the same length and all the angles are the same size.

**17)** What is an Irregular Polygon ?

A polygon that does not have all its sides and angles equal.

**18)** What is a Diagonal ?

A diagonal is a line connecting two corners (or vertices) of a Polygon

**19)** How many diagonals does a Hexagon have ?

A polygon with N sides will have N(N-3) / 2 diagonals

There are 9.

**20)** How many different types of **Quadralateral** are there ?**Kite** - 2 pairs of equal sides, 1 pair equal angles**Rhombus** - 4 equal length sides, 2 pairs equal angles (special type of Kite)**Trapezium** - 1 pair parallel sides**Parallelogram** - 2 pairs equal sides, 2 pairs equal angles, 2 pairs parallel sides**Rectangle** - 2 pairs equal sides, all angles are right angles**Square** - 4 equal sides, all anles are right angles (special type of rectangle)

**21)** Which shape has exactly one pair of parallel sides ?

Trapezium

**22)** Is a Diamond a shape ?

Yes. It is an example of a rhombus

**23)** How many different types of **Triangle** are there ?**Scalene** - 3 sides and angles are all different**Equalateral** - 3 sides and angles are all equal**Isosceles** - 2 sides and 2 angles equal

**24)** What is an Acute-Angled Triangle ?

Is a triangle with three acute angles.

**25)** What is a Right Angled Triangle ?

Is a triangle with one right angle.

**26)** What is an Obtuse-Angled Triangle ?

Is a triangle with one obtuse angle.

**27)** How do we measure Area ?

By multiplying the length and the width.

The units of area are square units, cm2 or m2

**28)** What are the four Area Formulas ?

Area of a Rectangle

Area of a Triange

Area of a Parallelogram

Area of a Trapezium

**29)** Can you calculate the Area of a Triangle ?

**30)** Can you calculate the Area of a Parallelogram ?

**31)** Can you calculate the Area of a Trapezium ?

**32)** Can you describe Line Symmetry ?

It cuts a 2D shape into two halves.

One half is the reflection of the other half.

Divides it into identical halves.

Draw all the capitals letters and mark on any lines of symmetry.

**33)** Can you describe Rotational Symmetry ?

When it still looks the same after some rotation (of less than one full turn).

The number of times it matches as we around is called the order.

**34)** How many different types of Transformation are there ?**Translation** - moving the shape left, right, up or down**Reflection** - reflecting the shape in a mirror**Rotation** - turning the shape round a point**Enlargement** - all the distances from the centre of enlargement are multiplied by the scale factor

**35)** If two 2D shapes are Congruent what does that mean ?

They are the same shape and the same size.

**36)** If two 2D shapes are Similar what does that mean ?

They have the same interior angles.

**37)** What are Convex and Concave Shapes ?

Convex shapes have no internal angles greater than 180 degrees.

Concave shapes have at least one internal angle greater than 180 degrees.

**38)** What is the Perimeter ?

The distance all the way around the outside of a 2D shape.

**39)** Does a Circle have a side ?

No. It is made up of arcs creating a continuous line that meets at two ends.

A side must be comprised of a line and two angles, one of each side of the line.

**40)** What is the Circumference of a Circle ?

This is the name for the perimeter of a circle.

It is the distance all the way around.

**41)** What is the Radius of a Circle ?

The distance from the center of the circle to any point on its circumference.

**42)** What is the Diameter of a Circle ?

The distance straight across a circle going through the centre.

It is two times the radius.

**43)** Can you calculate the Area of a circle ?

Pi x (Radius)squared

**44)** Can you calculate the Circumference of a circle ?

2 x Pi x Radius

**45)** What is a Tangent ?

A straight line that just touches the outside of a circle.

**46)** What is a Chord ?

A line drawn across the inside of a circle.

**47)** What is an Arc ?

An arc is part of the circumference of a circle.

**48)** What is a Sector ?

A sector is a wedge-shaped area cut right from the centre.

**49)** What is a Segment ?

A segment is the area you get when you cut through a circle along a chord.

**50)** What properties do 2D shapes have ?

Sides - These are the straight lines

Angles - The space between the 2 intersecting lines

Corners - (vertex) Where two sides meet to make an angle

**51)** What properties do 3D shapes have ?

Faces - (flat bits) a 2D shape that makes up one surface of a 3D shape

Edges - (straight lines) where two faces meet

Vertices - (corners) where two or more edges meet

**52)** What is a **Vertex** ?

This is a corner/point where two or more edges meet.

**53)** **Can you give some examples of 3D Shapes ?****Sphere** - A perfectly round 3D shape, like a ball. All points on the surface are the same distance from the centre.**Cone** - Has a circular base and tapers up to a single point called the apex.**Cylinder** - Has a circular or oval cross-section. Has three faces.**Triangular Prism** - Has five faces, two triangular bases and three rectangular faces.**Square Prism** - (Cube) - Has six faces that are all squares.**Rectangular Prism** - (Cuboid) - Has six faces that are all rectangles and the opposite faces are equal. **Triangular Based Pyramid** - Has four faces that are all triangles. (Tetrahedron, regular or irregular).**Square Based Pyramid** - Has five faces, one square and four triangles.

**54)** What shape has 6 rectangular faces. Not all the sides are identical ?

Rectangular Prism.

**55)** How many edges, faces and vertices does a Triangular Based Pyramid have ?

Faces - 4

Edges - 6

Vertices - 4

**56)** What is a Sphere ?

A perfectly round 3D shape, like a ball. All points on the surface are the same distance from the centre.

**57)** Can you name a 3D shape that only has one curved face ?

Sphere.

**58)** What is a **Prism** ?

A prism has a constant cross section.

Both ends of the 3D shape are the same.

The two end faces must be joined together using rectangles or squares.

**59)** What is a **Cuboid** ?

A rectangular prism that has 6 faces.

**60)** How many faces does a cylinder have ?

Three. A cylinder has two flat faces (circles) and one curved face (rectangle)

**61)** Is a Cylinder a prism ?

No. Because all prisms must have flat faces and a cylinder has one curved face.

**62)** Is a Cone a prism ?

No. Because both ends are not the same.

**63)** What is a **Pyramid** ?

It has a polygon base and flat (triangular) sides that join at a common point called the apex.

When the base is a regular polygon it is called a regular pyramid.

**64)** What is the top of a Pyramid called ?

Apex - the top or highest part of something.

**65)** What is a **Polyhedron** ?

Any 3D shape that has polygon faces.

No curved surfaces (cones, spheres and cylinders are not polyhedrons).

**66)** What is a **Tetrahedron** ?

A triangular based pyramid with equal sides is called a tetrahedron.

This is a polyhedron with four triangular sides.

**67)** What is a Octahedron ?

This is a polyhedron with 20 faces.

**68)** What is a Icasahedron ?

This is a polyhedron with 8 faces.

**69)** What is a Net ?

A net is a hollow 3D shape folded out flat.

A net is what you would draw, cut out and fold to make a 3D shape.

**70)** How do we measure Surface Area ?

Surface Area only applies to 3D shapes.

It is the total area of all the faces added together.

**71)** Can you calculate the surface area of a Cylinder ?

**72)** How do we measure **Capacity** ?

The capacity of a container is how much water (or liquid) it will hold.

It is measured in millimeters (ml) or litres (l).

**73)** How do we measure **Volume** ?

The amount of space a 3D shape takes up.

It is measured in cubic centimeters (cm3) or cubic metres (m3).

**74)** What does Fill mean ?

**75)** Can you calculate the volume of a Box or Cuboid ?

length x height x width

**76)** Can you calculate the volume of a Prism ?

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