Yields are at historically low levels with long rates significantly greater than short rates.
A normal yield curve slopes upward (asymptotically), the longer the maturity the higher the yield.
The market might be anticipating a rise in the risk-free interest rate. If investors hold off investing now they might receive a better rate in the future. Investors who are willing to lock their money in now need to be compensated for the anticipated rise in interest rate in the future.
A normal yield curve means that yields increase as maturity lengthens (ie a positive slope)
This reflects a growing economy with an expectation that inflation will increase.
The expectation of higher inflation leads to expectations that the central banks will raise short-term interest rates to slow down economic growth.
This causes uncertainty about the future rate of inflation and therefore investors want a higher yield as maturity lengthens.
On a normal rising chart - top line is forward rate, middle line is zero-coupon rate and bottom line is coupon bearing
Longer maturities entail greater risks for the investors.
This effect is referred to as Liquidity Spread.
If the market expects more volatility in the future, even if interest rates are anticipated to decline, the increase in the risk premium can influence the spread and therefore cause an increasing yield.
Yield-Curves move on a daily basis and tend to move in parallel with the movement in interest rates.
For example lets take US Treasury bonds and US dollar interest rates
Yield-Curves are usually upward sloping, the longer the maturity the higher the yield.
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