VLOOKUP

VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num [,range_lookup])

Returns the value in the same row after finding a matching value in the first column.

lookup_valueThe value to look for in the first column of the table.
table_arrayThe cell range or range name containing the table of data.
col_index_numThe column number for the value you want to return.
range_lookup(Optional) A logical value specifying the type of match performed:
True / 1 = Closest match, exact or the next smallest (table_array must be sorted in ascending order) (default)
False / 0 = Exact match (table_array does not have to be sorted)

REMARKS
* XLOOKUP was added in Microsoft 365 to replace this function.
* For an illustrated example refer to the page under Lookup Functions
* This function is not case sensitive when searching for text strings.
* This function supports wildcards (? and *).
* Wildcard character: ? = a single character.
* Wildcard character: * = multiple characters.
* This function cannot return values that are to the left of the lookup column.
* The "lookup_value" can be a number, text, logical value, or a name or reference that refers to one of these.
* If "lookup_value" cannot be found and "range_lookup" is False, then #N/A is returned.
* If "lookup_value" cannot be found and "range_lookup" is True, then the next smallest value is returned.
* If "lookup_value" is smaller than the smallest value, then #N/A is returned.
* If "table_array" contains duplicate values, then the results are based on the first match found.
* If "col_index_num" = 1, the first column value in "table_array" is used.
* If "col_index_num" = 2, the second column value in "table_array" is used.
* If "col_index_num" < 1, then #VALUE! is returned.
* If "col_index_num" > the number of columns in "table_array", then #REF! is returned.
* If "col_index_num" is not numeric, then #VALUE! is returned.
* If "range_lookup" = 1 or True, then an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, then the next smallest value is returned.
* If "range_lookup" = 1 or True, then the first column must be sorted into ascending order (-1, 0, 1, A, a, FALSE, TRUE).
* What happens if your tables contain empty cells.
* This function will only return values less than 256 characters long. If the matching value is more than 255 characters, then #N/A is returned.
* You can use the XLOOKUP function to return a value in the same row (or column).
* You can use the HLOOKUP function to return a value in the same column.
* You can use the LOOKUP function to return a value in a row (or column) that matches a value in a column (or row).
* You can use the MATCH function to return the position of a value.
* You can use the INDEX function to return the intersection of a row and a column.
* You can use the INDEX and MATCH functions as an alternative when your 'lookup value' is not in the first column.
* You can use the OFFSET and MATCH functions as an alternative when your 'lookup value' is not in the first column.
* VBA - The WorksheetFunction.VLookUp does not work properly in all versions. To avoid the errors use Application.VLookUp
* For the Microsoft documentation refer to support.microsoft.com
* For the Google documentation refer to support.google.com

 ABC
1=VLOOKUP("Bearings",B1:C3,2,TRUE) = 8Wheels6
2=VLOOKUP("Bolts",B1:C3,2,TRUE) = 11Bearings8
3=VLOOKUP("Wheels",B1:C3,1) = BoltsBolts11
4=VLOOKUP("Wheels",B1:C4,2) = 11  
5=VLOOKUP("Wheels",B1:C3,1,FALSE) = Wheels  
6=OFFSET(B1,MATCH("Wheels",B1:C3,0),1,1,1) = #N/A  
7=VLOOKUP("Wheels",B2:C4,1,FALSE) = #N/A  

5 - The equivalent using OFFSET and MATCH

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